Morphology and the gradient of a symmetric potential predicts gait transitions of dogs.
Biological Cybernetics (2017) 111 (3) 269-277. August 2017.
Simon Wilshin, G. Clark Haynes, Jack Porteous, Daniel Koditschek, Shai Revzen, and Andrew Spence.

Longitudinal quasi-static stability predicts changes in dog gait on rough terrain.
Journal of Experimental Biology (2017) (2017) 220 (10) 1864–1874. May 17th, 2017.
Simon Wilshin, Michelle Reeve, G. Clark Haynes, Shai Revzen, Daniel Koditschek, and Andrew Spence.

Nice media piece on this by Shai Revzen at Univ. Of Michigan here.

Paul Shamble, Simon Wilshin, Kyle J. Hovey, Ryan Harris, Andrew J. Spence, and S. Tonia Hsieh. Limping following limb loss increases locomotor stability. Journal of Experimental Biology (2017) Submitted.

External Mechanical Work in the Galloping Race Horse.
Biology Letters. (2017) Revised.
Self, Z.T., Spence, A.J., Wilson, A.M.

Omid Maghsoudi, Annie Vahedipour-Tabrizi, Ben Robertson and Andrew Spence (2017). Su- perpixels Based Marker Tracking vs. Hue Thresholding In Rodent Biomechanics Application. 51st Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. Pacific Grove, California, IEEE. October 29th, 2017. Accepted.


Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb.
PLoS ONE (2016) 11 (4): e147669. April 26th, 2016.
Charles, J.P., O. Cappellari, A.J. Spence, J.R. Hutchinson and D.J. Wells.

Muscle moment arms and sensitivity analysis of a mouse hindlimb musculoskeletal model.
Journal of Anatomy (2016) 229 (4) 514-535.
Charles, J.P., O. Cappellari, A.J. Spence, D.J. Wells and J.R. Hutchinson.

A Rodent Paw Tracker Using Support Vector Machine.
IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB) (2016).
Haji Maghsoudi, O., A. V. Tabrizi, B. Robertson, P. Shamble and A. Spence.


A Novel Automatic Method to Track the Body and Paws of Running Mice in High Speed Video.
The IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (2015)
Maghsoudi, O., A. Vahedipour-Tabrizi, B.D. Robertson, P.D. Shamble, and A.J. Spence.

Bolder stickleback fish make faster decisions, but are not less accurate.
Behavioural Ecology. (2015) 26 (1): 91-96.
Mamuneas, Diamanto, Spence, Andrew, Manica, Andrea, King, Andrew.


Fast horses, robots, and neurotechnologies: Discovering how to go fast on legs.
Science in Parliament (2013) 70 (3): 23–25. Summer 2013 Issue.
A.J. Spence.

Closing the loop in legged neuromechanics: an open-source computer vision controlled treadmill.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2013) 215 (2): 164–169. 15 May 2013.
A.J. Spence, G. Nicholson-Thomas & R. Lampe.

Source code and documentation here.


Racehorse speed supports a power constraint to incline running and a force constraint to decline running.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Online early (2012)
Zoe Self, Andrew Spence, & Alan Wilson

A Growing Size Synthesis.
Current Biology (2012) 22 (9): R309-R314.
Andrew Spence and John Hutchinson.

Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing.
Biology Letters (2012) Online ahead.
Andrew Spence, Andrew Thurman, Michael Maher, and Alan Wilson.


Control strategies for legged locomotion: a comparative approach.
7th European Nonlinear Dynamics Conference (ENOC 2011), Rome, Italy.
A.J. Spence.

Ecological and biomechanical insights into the evolution of gliding in mammals
Integrative and Comparative Biology (2011) 51(6): 991-1001.
Greg Byrnes and A. J. Spence.

Gliding saves time but not energy in Malayan Colugos.
Journal of Experimental Biology 214 (2011) p 2690-2696.
Greg Byrnes, Thomas Libby, Norman, T.-L. Lim, and A.J. Spence.

A single muscle's multifunctional control potential of body dynamics for postural control and running
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 366 (2011) no. 1570 p. 1592-1605.
Simon Sponberg, Andrew J. Spence, Chris H. Mullens, & Robert J. Full.

Sex differences in the locomotor behavior and ecology of a gliding mammal ( Galeopterus variegatus) determined from animal-borne inertial sensors.
Journal of Mammology 92 no. 2, (2011) p 444-451.
G. Byrnes, N. T-L. Lim, C. Yeong, & A.J. Spence.

High speed field kinematics of foot contact in elite galloping horses in training.
Equine Veterinary Journal 43 no. 2 (2011) p 216-222.
K.J. Parsons, A.J. Spence, R. Morgan, J.A. Thompson, & A.M. Wilson.


Insects running on elastic surfaces.
Journal of Experimental Biology 213 (2010) p 1907-1920.
A.J. Spence, S. Revzen, J. Seipel, C. Mullens, & R.J. Full.

A sticky situation: Solifugids (Arachnida, Solifugae) use adhesive organs on their pedipalps for prey capture.
Journal of Ethology 29 no. 1 (2010) p 177-180.
R.H. Willemart, R.D. Santer, A.J. Spence & E.A. Hebets.


Modern Riding Style Improves Horse Racing Times.
Science 325 (2009) p 289.
T. Pfau, A.J. Spence, S. Starke, M. Ferrari & A. Wilson.

Scaling in biology.
Current Biology 19 (2009) R57-R61.
A.J. Spence.


Take-off and landing kinetics of free-ranging Malayan colugos (Galeopterus variegatus).
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275 (2008) no 1638 p1007-1013.
G. Byrnes, N. T-L. Lim, & A.J. Spence.

Accuracy of the TurfTrax Racing Data System for determination of speed and position.
Equine Veterinary Journal, 40, (2008) 680-683.
A.J. Spence, H. Tan & A.M. Wilson.


Flexible multielectrodes can resolve multiple muscles in an insect appendage.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 159 (2007), 116-124.
A.J. Spence, K.B. Neeves, D. Murphy, S. Sponberg, B.R. Land, R.R. Hoy, & M.S. Isaacson


Anatomy and physiology of giant neurons in the antenniform leg of the amblypygid Phrynus marginemaculatus.
Journal of Arachnology 34 (2006), 566-577.
A.J. Spence & E.A. Hebets


Dexamethasone treatment reduces astroglia responses to inserted neuroprosthetic devices in rat neocortex.
Experimental Neurology 194 (2005), 289-300.
L. Spataro, J. Dilgen, S. Retterer, A.J. Spence, M. Isaacson, J.N. Turner & W. Shain.


Extracellular Recordings from Constructed Neuronal Networks using Planar Microelectrode Arrays.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 51 (2004), 1640-1648.
C.D. James, A.J. Spence, N. Dowell, R.J. Hussein, K. Smith, H.G. Craighead, M.S. Isaacson, W. Shain & J. Turner.

Direct Casting of Polymeric Membranes into Microfluidic Devices.
Separation Science and Technology 39 (2004), 2515-2530.
A.P. Russo, S.T. Retterer, A.J. Spence, M.S. Isaacson, L.A. Lepak, M.G. Spencer, D.L. Martin, R. MacColl & J.N. Turner.

Model neural prostheses with Integrated Microfluidics: A Potential Intervention Strategy for Controlling Reactive Cell and Tissue Responses.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 51 (2004), 2063-2073.
S.T. Retterer, K.L. Smith, C.S. Bjornsson, K.B. Neeves, A.J. Spence, J.N. Turner, W. Shain, & M.S. Isaacson.


Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera).
Journal of Experimental Biology 206 (2003), 2653-2663.
A. Surlykke, J.E. Yack, A.J. Spence & I. Hasenfuss.

A micromachined silicon multielectrode for multiunit recording.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 126 (2003), 119-126.
A.J. Spence, R.R. Hoy & M. S. Isaacson.

Brain responses to micro-machined silicon devices.
Brain Research 983 (2003), 23-35.
D.H. Szarowski, M.D. Andersen, S. Retterer, A.J. Spence, M. Isaacson, H.G. Craighead, J.N. Turner & W. Shain.


Microfabricated Plastic Devices from Silicon Using Soft Intermediates.
Biomedical Microdevices 4 (2002), 277-283.
A.P. Russo, D. Apoga, N. Dowell, W. Shain, A. Turner, H. Craighead, A.J. Spence, S.T. Retterer, M.S. Isaacson, H.C. Hoch & J.N. Turner


Aberration correction in the STEM
Institute of Physics Conference Series 153 (Proceedings 1997 EMAG meeting) Ed. Rodenburg JM, 35.
Krivanek O.L., Dellby N., Spence A.J., Camps R.A., and Brown L.M.
Nion corporation.