Infrared videography of a subcutaneous knee tattoo as a simple and inexpensive method to overcome skin motion artifact in rodent kinematics.
BioRXiv. Available soon after Aug 22nd, 2022.
George Moukarzel, Bradley C. Rauscher, Chetan A. Patil, Andrew J. Spence.

Chemogenetic modulation of sensory afferents induces locomotor changes and plasticity after spinal cord injury.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience - Neuroplasticity and Development Special Topic 26 August 2022.
Jaclyn T. Eisdorfer, Hannah Sobotka-Briner, Susan Schramfield, George Moukarzel, Jie Chen, Thomas Campion, Rupert Smit, Bradley C. Rauscher, Michel A. Lemay, George M. Smith, Andrew J. Spence.

The economy of terrestrial locomotion.
Current Biology.Volume 32, Issue 12, 20 June 2022, Pages R676-R680.
Andrew J. Spence, Simon D. Wilshin, Greg Byrnes.

NOTE: This paper is free for the next 50 days with my Author's Sharing Link! Go grab the pdf: The economy of terrestrial locomotion. Free Authors Sharing Link for 50 days


A versatile system for neuromuscular stimulation and recording in the mouse model using a lightweight magnetically coupled headmount.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 1 October 2021.
Annie Vahedipour, Matthew R.Short, Azadeh Timnak, Omid Haji Maghsoudi, Thomas Hallowell, Jonathan Gerstenhaber, Ornella Cappellari, Michel Lemay, Andrew J.Spence.

A MATLAB application for automated H-Reflex measurements and analyses.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. Volume 66, April 2021.
George Moukarzel, Michel A. Lemay, Andrew J.Spence.

Addition of angled rungs to the horizontal ladder walking task for more sensitive probing of sensorimotor changes.
PLOS One. 5 February 2021.
Jaclyn T. Eisdorfer, Michael A. Phelan, Kathleen M. Keefe, Morgan M. Rollins, Thomas J. Campion III, Kaitlyn M. Rauscher, Hannah Sobotka-Briner, Mollie Senior, Gabrielle Gordon, George M. Smith, Andrew J. Spence.


Epidural Electrical Stimulation: A Review of Plasticity Mechanisms That Are Hypothesized to Underlie Enhanced Recovery From Spinal Cord Injury With Stimulation.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2 September 2020.
Jaclyn T. Eisdorfer, Rupert D. Smit, Kathleen M. Keefe, Michel A. Lemay, George M. Smith and Andrew J. Spence

Dog galloping on rough terrain exhibits similar limb co-ordination patterns and gait variability to that on flat terrain.
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics. Online Accepted Manuscript 21 August 2020.
Wilshin, S., Reeve, Michelle A., and Spence, A.J.

Q&A: Andrew Spence
Current Biology. 3 August 2020.
Spence, A.J.

Leveraging elastic instabilities for amplified performance: Spine-inspired high-speed and high-force soft robots.
Science Advances. 8 May 2020.
Yichao Tang, Yinding Chi, Jiefeng Sun, Tzu-Hao Huang, Omid H. Maghsoudi, Andrew Spence, Jianguo Zhao, Hao Su, Jie Yin


A novel method for robust markerless tracking of rodent paws in 3D.
URASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing. 14 September 2019.
Omid Haji Maghsoudi, Annie Vahedipour, and Spence, A. J.

Treadmill Training Effect on Kinematics: An Aging Study in Rats.
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. 11 September 2019.
Omid Haji Maghsoudi, Andrew J. Spence

Ground Reaction Forces Of Overground Galloping In Ridden Thoroughbred Racehorses.
Journal of Experimental Biology. 23 August 2019.
Self-Davies, Z.T., Spence, A.J., Wilson, A.M.

3D Based Landmark Tracker Employing a Superpixels Method for Neuroscience, Biomechanics, and Biology Studies.
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology Online Early. 12 March 2019.
Haji Maghsoudi, O., Vahedipour, A. and Spence, A.

Open-source Python software for analysis of 3D kinematics from quadrupedal animals.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control 51, pp 364-373. 26 February 2019.
Haji Maghsoudi, O., Vahedipour, A. and Hallowell, T., and Spence, A.

External Mechanical Work in the Galloping Race Horse.
Biology Letters. 20 February 2019.
Self, Z.T., Spence, A.J., Wilson, A.M.


Not just great TV -- broad insights from extreme animal performance
Current Biology Magazine 28:20. 22 October 2018, Pages R1176-R1177.
Spence, A. J.

The above is a review of a cool and very funny new book on comparative biomechanics and evoluation of animal performance by Simon Lailvaux. Worth a read!

Uncovering the structure of the mouse gait controller: mice respond to substrate perturbations with adaptations in gait on a continuum between trot and bound.
Journal of Biomechanics 78 pp. 77-86. September 10th, 2018.
Vahedipour, A., Haji-Maghsoudi, O., Wilshin, S., Shamble, P., Robertson, B. D. and Spence, A. J.

Limping following limb loss increases locomotor stability.
Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb174268, September 25th, 2018.
Simon Wilshin, Paul Shamble, Kyle J. Hovey, Ryan Harris, Andrew J. Spence, and S. Tonia Hsieh.

A nice piece on this work for Inside JEB by Kathryn Knight is here.

Matlab Software to Characterize Electrode Impedances for Neuroscience Applications.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 307, 1 September 2018, Pages 70-83.
Haji Maghsoudi, O., Vahedipour, A., George, S. P., Hallowell, T., Robertson, B., Short, M., Gerstenhaber, J. and Spence, A.

Application of Superpixels to Segment Several Landmarks in Running Rodents.
Journal of Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (PRIA) 28:3 pp. 468-482, July 2018.
Omid Maghsoudi, Annie Vahedipour, Ben Robertson, and Andrew Spence


Morphology and the gradient of a symmetric potential predicts gait transitions of dogs.
Biological Cybernetics (2017) 111 (3) 269-277. August 2017.
Simon Wilshin, G. Clark Haynes, Jack Porteous, Daniel Koditschek, Shai Revzen, and Andrew Spence.

Longitudinal quasi-static stability predicts changes in dog gait on rough terrain.
Journal of Experimental Biology (2017) (2017) 220 (10) 1864–1874. May 17th, 2017.
Simon Wilshin, Michelle Reeve, G. Clark Haynes, Shai Revzen, Daniel Koditschek, and Andrew Spence.

Nice media piece on this by Shai Revzen at Univ. Of Michigan here.

Superpixels Based Marker Tracking vs. Hue Thresholding In Rodent Biomechanics Application.
51st Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. Pacific Grove, California, IEEE. October 29th, 2017.
Omid Maghsoudi, Annie Vahedipour-Tabrizi, Ben Robertson and Andrew Spence.


Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb.
PLoS ONE (2016) 11 (4): e147669. April 26th, 2016.
Charles, J.P., O. Cappellari, A.J. Spence, J.R. Hutchinson and D.J. Wells.

Muscle moment arms and sensitivity analysis of a mouse hindlimb musculoskeletal model.
Journal of Anatomy (2016) 229 (4) 514-535.
Charles, J.P., O. Cappellari, A.J. Spence, D.J. Wells and J.R. Hutchinson.

A Rodent Paw Tracker Using Support Vector Machine.
IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB) (2016).
Haji Maghsoudi, O., A. V. Tabrizi, B. Robertson, P. Shamble and A. Spence.


A Novel Automatic Method to Track the Body and Paws of Running Mice in High Speed Video.
The IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (2015)
Maghsoudi, O., A. Vahedipour-Tabrizi, B.D. Robertson, P.D. Shamble, and A.J. Spence.

Bolder stickleback fish make faster decisions, but are not less accurate.
Behavioural Ecology. (2015) 26 (1): 91-96.
Mamuneas, Diamanto, Spence, Andrew, Manica, Andrea, King, Andrew.


Fast horses, robots, and neurotechnologies: Discovering how to go fast on legs.
Science in Parliament (2013) 70 (3): 23–25. Summer 2013 Issue.
A.J. Spence.

Closing the loop in legged neuromechanics: an open-source computer vision controlled treadmill.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2013) 215 (2): 164–169. 15 May 2013.
A.J. Spence, G. Nicholson-Thomas & R. Lampe.

Source code and documentation here.


Racehorse speed supports a power constraint to incline running and a force constraint to decline running.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Online early (2012)
Zoe Self, Andrew Spence, & Alan Wilson

A Growing Size Synthesis.
Current Biology (2012) 22 (9): R309-R314.
Andrew Spence and John Hutchinson.

Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing.
Biology Letters (2012) Online ahead.
Andrew Spence, Andrew Thurman, Michael Maher, and Alan Wilson.


Control strategies for legged locomotion: a comparative approach.
7th European Nonlinear Dynamics Conference (ENOC 2011), Rome, Italy.
A.J. Spence.

Ecological and biomechanical insights into the evolution of gliding in mammals
Integrative and Comparative Biology (2011) 51(6): 991-1001.
Greg Byrnes and A. J. Spence.

Gliding saves time but not energy in Malayan Colugos.
Journal of Experimental Biology 214 (2011) p 2690-2696.
Greg Byrnes, Thomas Libby, Norman, T.-L. Lim, and A.J. Spence.

A single muscle's multifunctional control potential of body dynamics for postural control and running
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 366 (2011) no. 1570 p. 1592-1605.
Simon Sponberg, Andrew J. Spence, Chris H. Mullens, & Robert J. Full.

Sex differences in the locomotor behavior and ecology of a gliding mammal ( Galeopterus variegatus) determined from animal-borne inertial sensors.
Journal of Mammology 92 no. 2, (2011) p 444-451.
G. Byrnes, N. T-L. Lim, C. Yeong, & A.J. Spence.

High speed field kinematics of foot contact in elite galloping horses in training.
Equine Veterinary Journal 43 no. 2 (2011) p 216-222.
K.J. Parsons, A.J. Spence, R. Morgan, J.A. Thompson, & A.M. Wilson.


Insects running on elastic surfaces.
Journal of Experimental Biology 213 (2010) p 1907-1920.
A.J. Spence, S. Revzen, J. Seipel, C. Mullens, & R.J. Full.

A sticky situation: Solifugids (Arachnida, Solifugae) use adhesive organs on their pedipalps for prey capture.
Journal of Ethology 29 no. 1 (2010) p 177-180.
R.H. Willemart, R.D. Santer, A.J. Spence & E.A. Hebets.


Modern Riding Style Improves Horse Racing Times.
Science 325 (2009) p 289.
T. Pfau, A.J. Spence, S. Starke, M. Ferrari & A. Wilson.

Scaling in biology.
Current Biology 19 (2009) R57-R61.
A.J. Spence.


Take-off and landing kinetics of free-ranging Malayan colugos (Galeopterus variegatus).
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275 (2008) no 1638 p1007-1013.
G. Byrnes, N. T-L. Lim, & A.J. Spence.

Accuracy of the TurfTrax Racing Data System for determination of speed and position.
Equine Veterinary Journal, 40, (2008) 680-683.
A.J. Spence, H. Tan & A.M. Wilson.


Flexible multielectrodes can resolve multiple muscles in an insect appendage.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 159 (2007), 116-124.
A.J. Spence, K.B. Neeves, D. Murphy, S. Sponberg, B.R. Land, R.R. Hoy, & M.S. Isaacson


Anatomy and physiology of giant neurons in the antenniform leg of the amblypygid Phrynus marginemaculatus.
Journal of Arachnology 34 (2006), 566-577.
A.J. Spence & E.A. Hebets


Dexamethasone treatment reduces astroglia responses to inserted neuroprosthetic devices in rat neocortex.
Experimental Neurology 194 (2005), 289-300.
L. Spataro, J. Dilgen, S. Retterer, A.J. Spence, M. Isaacson, J.N. Turner & W. Shain.


Extracellular Recordings from Constructed Neuronal Networks using Planar Microelectrode Arrays.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 51 (2004), 1640-1648.
C.D. James, A.J. Spence, N. Dowell, R.J. Hussein, K. Smith, H.G. Craighead, M.S. Isaacson, W. Shain & J. Turner.

Direct Casting of Polymeric Membranes into Microfluidic Devices.
Separation Science and Technology 39 (2004), 2515-2530.
A.P. Russo, S.T. Retterer, A.J. Spence, M.S. Isaacson, L.A. Lepak, M.G. Spencer, D.L. Martin, R. MacColl & J.N. Turner.

Model neural prostheses with Integrated Microfluidics: A Potential Intervention Strategy for Controlling Reactive Cell and Tissue Responses.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 51 (2004), 2063-2073.
S.T. Retterer, K.L. Smith, C.S. Bjornsson, K.B. Neeves, A.J. Spence, J.N. Turner, W. Shain, & M.S. Isaacson.


Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera).
Journal of Experimental Biology 206 (2003), 2653-2663.
A. Surlykke, J.E. Yack, A.J. Spence & I. Hasenfuss.

A micromachined silicon multielectrode for multiunit recording.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 126 (2003), 119-126.
A.J. Spence, R.R. Hoy & M. S. Isaacson.

Brain responses to micro-machined silicon devices.
Brain Research 983 (2003), 23-35.
D.H. Szarowski, M.D. Andersen, S. Retterer, A.J. Spence, M. Isaacson, H.G. Craighead, J.N. Turner & W. Shain.


Microfabricated Plastic Devices from Silicon Using Soft Intermediates.
Biomedical Microdevices 4 (2002), 277-283.
A.P. Russo, D. Apoga, N. Dowell, W. Shain, A. Turner, H. Craighead, A.J. Spence, S.T. Retterer, M.S. Isaacson, H.C. Hoch & J.N. Turner


Aberration correction in the STEM
Institute of Physics Conference Series 153 (Proceedings 1997 EMAG meeting) Ed. Rodenburg JM, 35.
Krivanek O.L., Dellby N., Spence A.J., Camps R.A., and Brown L.M.
Nion corporation.